Tuesday, December 31, 2019
The hammerhead worm (Bipalium sp.) is a terrifying, toxic terrestrial flatworm. This large planarian lives on land and is both a predator and a cannibal. While the distinctive-looking worms dont pose a direct threat to human beings, theyre an invasive species that packs the power to eradicate earthworms. Fast Facts: Hammerhead Worm Scientific Name: Bipalium sp.Other Names: Broadhead planarian, landchovyDistinguishing Features: Large terrestrial planarian with a spade-shaped head and ventral foot or creeping soleSize Range: From 5 cm (B. adventitium) to over 20 cm in length (B. kewense)Diet: Carnivorous, known to eat earthworms and each otherLifespan: Potentially immortalHabitat: Distributed worldwide, preferring humid, warm habitatsConservation Status: Not evaluatedKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: PlatyhelminthesClass: RhabditophoraOrder: TricladidaFamily: GeoplanidaeFun Fact: The hammerhead worm is one of only a very few terrestrial invertebrates known to produce the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin. Description The most distinctive features of the hammerhead worm are its fan- or spade-shaped head and long, flattened body. The underside of the planarian has a large creeping sole used for locomotion. Species are differentiated by the shape of the head, size, coloration, and stripe pattern. The terrestrial planarians are earth-colored, found in shades of gray, brown, gold, and green. Small hammerhead worms include B. adventitium, which ranges from 5 to 8Ã cm (2.0 to 3.1Ã inches) in length. In contrast, adult B. kewense worms can exceed 20 cm in length. The hammerhead worm has a long, flattened body and a broad head. up close with nature / Getty Images Distribution and Habitat Hammerhead worms are native to tropical and subtropical regions but have become invasive worldwide. Its believed the planarians were accidentally transported and distributed on rooted horticultural plants. Because hammerhead worms require humidity, they are uncommon in desert and mountain biomes. Diet Bipalium worms are carnivores, known to prey on earthworms, slugs, insect larvae, and each other. The worms detect prey using chemoreceptors located under the head or ventral groove. A hammerhead worm tracks its prey, pushes it against a surface, and entangles it in slimy secretions. Once the prey is mostly immobilized, the worm extends is pharynx from its body and secretes digestive enzymes, then sucks liquefied tissue into its branched gut using cilia. When digestion is complete, the worms mouth also serves as its anus. Hammerhead worms store food in vacuoles in their digestive epithelium. A worm can survive several weeks on its reserves and will cannibalize its own tissues for food. Bipalium kewense capturing an earthworm. Researchers believe the planarian secretes a toxin to immobilize its prey. Ã Jean-Lou JustineÃ¢â¬â¹, Leigh Winsor, Delphine Gey, Pierre Gros, and Jessica ThÃ ©venot Toxicity While some types of worms are edible, the hammerhead worm is not among them. The planarian contains the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin, which the worm uses to immobilize prey and deter predators The toxin is also found in pufferfish, the blue-ringed octopus, and rough-skinned newts, but was not known to occur in any species of terrestrial invertebrate prior to its discovery in the hammerhead worm. Behavior Hammerhead worms have been mistakenly called hammerhead slugs because they move in a slug-like fashion. They use cilia on their creeping sole to glide over a strip of mucus. The worms have also been observed lowering themselves down a string of mucus. Land planarians are photo-negative (light-sensitive) and need high humidity. Because of this, they usually move and feed at night. They prefer cool, damp places, typically residing under rocks, logs, or shrubs. Reproduction and Regeneration The worms are hermaphrodites, with each individual possessing both testes and ovaries. A hammerhead worm can exchange gametes with another worm via its secretions. Fertilized eggs develop inside the body and are shed as egg capsules. After about three weeks, the eggs hatch and the worms mature. In some species, juveniles have different coloration from adults. However, asexual reproduction is much more common than sexual reproduction. Hammerhead worms, like other planaria, are essentially immortal. Usually, a worm reproduces via fragmentation, leaving behind a tail tip stuck to a leaf or other substrate, which then develops into an adult. If the worm is cut into pieces, each section can regenerate into a fully-developed organism within a few weeks. Injured worms rapidly regenerate damaged tissue. Conservation Status None of the species of hammerhead worm have been evaluated for the IUCN Red List, but theres no evidence their numbers are threatened. Land planarians are widely distributed in their natural tropical and subtropical habitats and have extended their territorial reach worldwide. Once established in a greenhouse, the animals disperse into the surrounding region. In colder climates, the worms are able to survive freezing temperatures by seeking protected locations. Economic Importance At one time, researchers were concerned terrestrial planarians might damage plants. Over time, they were deemed harmless to greenery, but then a more insidious threat appeared. Hammerhead worms have the potential to exterminate earthworm populations. Earthworms are vital because they aerate and fertilize the soil. Hammerhead worms are considered a threatening invasive species. Some methods used to control slugs also work on flatworms, however, their longterm impact on ecosystems has yet to be fully determined. Sources Ducey, P. K.; Cerqua, J.; West, L. J.; Warner, M. (2006). Eberle, Mark E, ed. Rare Egg Capsule Production in the Invasive Terrestrial Planarian Bipalium Kewense. The Southwestern Naturalist. 51 (2): 252. doi:10.1894/0038-4909(2006)51[252:RECPIT]2.0.CO;2Ducey, P. K.; West, L. J.; Shaw, G.; De Lisle, J. (2005). Reproductive ecology and evolution in the invasive terrestrial planarian Bipalium adventitium across North America. Pedobiologia. 49 (4): 367. doi:10.1016/j.pedobi.2005.04.002Ducey, P. K.; Messere, M.; Lapoint, K.; Noce, S. (1999). Lumbricid Prey and Potential Herpetofaunal Predators of the Invading Terrestrial Flatworm Bipalium adventitium (Turbellaria: Tricladida: Terricola). The American Midland Naturalist. 141 (2): 305. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(1999)141[0305:LPAPHP]2.0.CO;2Ogren, R. E. (1995). Predation behaviour of land planarians. Hydrobiologia. 305: 105Ã¢â¬â111. doi:10.1007/BF00036370Stokes, A. N.; Ducey, P. K.; Neuman-Lee, L.; Hanifin, C. T.; French, S. S.; Pfrender, M. E.; Brodie, E. D.; Brodie Jr., E. D. (2014). Confirmation and Distribution of Tetrodotoxin for the First Time in Terrestrial Invertebrates: Two Terrestrial Flatworm Species (Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense). PLoS ONE. 9 (6): e100718. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100718Justine, Jean-Lou; Winsor, Leigh; Gey, Delphine; Gros, Pierre; ThÃ ©venot, Jessica (2018). Giant wormsÃ .Ã chez moi!Ã Hammerhead flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae,Ã BipaliumÃ spp.,Ã DiversibipaliumÃ spp.) in metropolitan France and overseas French territories
Monday, December 23, 2019
125- Word Essay Some man are stronger then others. They are born into ruling over others becoming the shepherd over the sheep. A good sheep are law obeying citizens. This brings good things to come when the sheep is peaceful and hard working for the shepherd. The shepherd allows the sheep to have food and shelter, so they can work hard. This shows that all men are not created equal. Are action are benefitting or harming others all the time. But, if that is true how can justice be define as helping friends and harming no one. In the geek time people wanted to do what the gods do, which is misbehaving. (Killing, Rapping) The unraveling of Geek-sociality. We can see this happening in the US in present time. The sophists offered young wealthy Greek men an education in aretÃâ (virtue or excellence), thereby attaining wealth and fame. If we lives in a unjust world if could led to violence. To love something is to lack it (needs, wants, desires). Someone can desire to be like a certain person. It is what you lack, that is what you desire. For example, a men could be the biggest Red Sock fan but can t even hit a ball. A philosopher doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give a hoot about money and honor. Love wisdom. 600-800 Word Essay Aristotle was the student of Plato. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were the three thinkers that formed the cornerstone of Western philosophy. The physician s art was a craft that was usually passed from one generation to another. So, Nicomachus, Aristotle fathers, wasShow MoreRelatedThe Google Self-Driving Automobile2408 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Google Self-Driving Automobile In 2010, Google broadcasted that they created an archetype of a car that can drive itself; its purpose, to avert collisions, allow citizens more time, and cut down on harmful pollutants that vehicles produce (Poczter Jankovic, 2014). The heart of the self-driving automobile is lasers that are mounted on the roof of a modified Toyota Prius that produces a precise three-dimensional atlas of the area surrounding the car. Furthermore, the automobile is outfitted withRead MoreUt Unum Sint25504 Words Ã |Ã 103 Pagesovercome in the total gift of self for the sake of the Gospel. lt;Christ calls all his disciples to unitygt;. My earnest desire is to renew this call today, to propose it once more with determination, repeating what I said at the Roman Colosseum on Good Friday 1994, at the end of the meditation on the lt;Via Crucesgt; prepared by my Venerable Brother Bartholomew, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. There I stated that believers in Christ, united in following in the footsteps of the martyrsRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pagesreasoning has been enjoyable for me, but special thanks go to my children, Joshua, 8, and Justine, 3, for comic relief during the months of writing. This book is dedicated to them. For the 2012 edition: This book is dedicated to my wife Hellan whose good advice has improved the book in many ways. vi Table of Contents Preface.........................................................................................................................................................iii CopyrightRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesRogersÃ¢â¬â¢ pithy observation: Ã¢â¬Å"Common sense ain t common.Ã¢â¬ In addition, the research reported in the Introduction suggests that, in many cases, managersÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"common senseÃ¢â¬ isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"good sense.Ã¢â¬ The premise of this book and associated course is that the key to effective management practice is practicing what effective managersÃ¢â¬âthose with Ã¢â¬Å"good senseÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âdo consistently. Reason #2: It is consistent with proven principles of effective teaching and learning. A seasoned university professor advised a young colleague
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Can the problem of monarchy be considered old-fashioned? A monarchy is a governmental system that has one person as the permanent head of state until he or she dies or gives up his or her position. Typically, the position of monarch is hereditary, as is the case with famous monarchies like that of the United Kingdom. The term is often used to refer to a system of government in which the monarch Ã¢â¬â such as a king or queen Ã¢â¬â has absolute authority, but many monarchies are limited or constitutional monarchies in which the monarch has restricted power and might even be mostly a figurehead rather than a ruler. We will write a custom essay sample on Can the Problem of Monarchy Be Considered Old-Fashioned? or any similar topic only for you Order Now So ,the question is whether the problem of monarchy can be considered old-fashioned or not? One aspect of a monarchy that is considered to be an advantage is that it can reduce or eliminate the struggle for ultimate power within the government. When the head of state must be elected, members of different political parties or factions will compete for the position. This often creates division and conflict within the government. If the head of state serves for life and his or her successor is already known, it might increase the unity within the government. Still, the monarchy system represents a cultural tradition for a country. In many places, even after the actual operation of the government has changed to a different system, a monarchy will be retained because it is an important aspect of the cultural and political history of the nation. The monarchs in these cases are living representatives of generations of rulers. They often are treated as figures of reverence. Moreover, the system of monarchy means stability even prosperity . As an example, our country was doing well during monarchy system until the Russian communist took it and stole the land from the legal owners (peasants, rich people or business men). Everyone needs a place where his or her family would be safe and a stable working place. This stability in society is definitely attracting more and more people on the monarchyÃ¢â¬â¢s side. Another argument, which may sound odd, is that people are more reluctant to trust a king or a queen as the Ã¢â¬ËbossÃ¢â¬â¢ of the country rather than a president. Believe it or not people still have the idea of a king as a person who is standing on a big throne with a golden crown on his head, having a luxurious life and with an outstanding intelligence as well (image that was took from fairy tales I guess) while a president is just a simple tailored-suited person. In conclusion I think that most people do not regard monarchy as an old-fashioned system. Moreover I think that this system is gaining more and more popularity as we have been experiencing many other systems which did not bring us prosperity at all. How to cite Can the Problem of Monarchy Be Considered Old-Fashioned?, Essay examples
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Effect of External Environment Factors on Human Resource Planning Strategies. Answer: Introduction Human resource management is a concept that allows business organisations to manage their workforce in the best possible manner. Human resource management offers concepts, such as performance management, training and development, career development, etc., which the managers can use to establish better relations between employers and employees and ultimately achieve an increase in the productivity and efficiency of the workforce (Hendry, 2012). Human resource planning Human resource planning, also known as HRP, is another important part of human resource management. Human resource planning is a concept that allows business organisations to forecast their human resource demands using statistical data and identifying options or methods that can be used to fulfil the identified demand (Bhattacharyya, 2009). There are a number of factors that are considered while planning the human resources of a company and are generally divided into two main categories i.e. internal factors and external factors. The factors considered under the internal factory category are organisational structure, budget, skill level or competencies required, productivity, etc. (Enotes, 2015). On the other hand, the external factors that can have a huge impact on the human resource planning of a company are government regulations, legal compliances, economic conditions, technological advancements, workforce demographics, etc. (Friedman, 2013). In the rapidly changing business and market scenario, it is of utmost importance that the managers continuously focus on human resource planning as shortage of labour or surplus labour can make a company inefficient or less competitive in the market. Market scenario in Australia Australia, officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia, is one of the top countries that attracts fresh human resources from most of the developing countries. The country enjoys a wealthy status and generates a lot of income from mining exports, telecommunications, banking and manufacturing, which offers a lot of job opportunities to the Australians and to those who are moving in Australia from different parts of the world. The country has a low rate of poverty, which improves its economic status throughout the world and is also the fifth largest economy in the world. As of May 2012, a total of 11,537,900 people were working as employees in the country while the unemployment rate was 5.1% (Australian Bureau of Statistics , 2012). Due to high movement of people in and out of Australia, the business organisations that are operating in Australia are facing a lot of changes in the internal and external business environment factors, which forces them to adopt new human resource mana gement strategies that would enable them to become more productive and efficient. Effect of external environment factors on human resource planning strategies After the spread of globalisation, the global market has undergone a drastic change. The competition between rival firms has reached a scale where they are competing with each other at the global level and are even unaware about the actual number of competitors in the market. The barriers to new market entrants have become lesser and the internal and external business environment factors are changing at such a pace that it has nearly become impossible for business organisations to resist workplace changes for long. In such conditions, as a result of globalisation, there has also been a huge impact on the human resource demand and supply conditions. In the present day world, due to the expansion of businesses at a global scale, human resources from one country are moving to other countries in search of work while even the companies are relocating their human resources from country to another for the purpose of business expansion on foreign lands. Due to the large and continuous moveme nt of human resources from one place to another, it has nearly become impossible for the business organisations to believe that the jobs will remain unchanged for longer periods and that the concept of human resource planning should now only focus upon internal replacement charts and succession planning. Rather, the concept of human resource planning should now lay a greater focus on scenario planning, which can help business organisations in taking into account the changing environment factors while planning their human resources Australia is a country that experiences high rate of immigrants from different parts of the world every year. In 2015 alone, there were around 10,218 people who had immigrated to Australia (The University of Adelaide). As a result, the demographics of Australia is rapidly changing and is having an impact on the external environment of business organisations. In a research carried out by Hudson, in Australia, the generation Z of Australia has started entering the workforce and will revolutionaries the way in which the things are done. The generation Z is most likely going to transform the Australian business world by digitalising most of the operations and processes as they have powerful digital capabilities and have strong entrepreneurial drive (Hudson). On the other hand, 1/3rd of the employees working in Australia are the ones who fall in the generation Y category and most of them have started stepping into the managerial positions. As a result, the demographics of employees workin g in Australia is rapidly changing because of changing population trends and high rate of oversea immigrants moving to Australia. They fresh talent in the Australian business world is bringing in new and innovative ideas, which will ultimately change the working style in the market and will force the business organisations to undergo changes in order to remain competitive (Jorgenson, 2004). As a result, the changing demographics is bringing about some major changes in the Australian business environment and the overall market, which is forcing the companies to review their human resource planning strategies and implement new policies that would allow them to achieve greater advantages through their human resources. Technological innovations are also playing a huge role in the changing market trends. Technology is continuously evolving and is changing at such a rapid pace that new machines can be introduced in the market within no time and can eliminate the need of human efforts altogether. The concept of globalisation has brought the entire world so close that a technological innovation introduced in one part of the world can be brought by a company in another corner of the world on the very same day. Such technological changes and innovations can have an impact on the human resource requirements of a company and the demand and supply of human resources can vary according to it because new machinery can eliminate the requirement of human resources in a company while it can also require more human resource to operate it. Thus, technological innovations can bring about some major changes in human resource planning strategies and plans. Another change in the global business world is related with the flexible work arrangements that most of the employees are now demanding and most of the employers have started offering. Most companies in the world are enjoying the benefits of technology and are now making a shift to business setups where most of the work can be done by the employees from their home itself (Jury, 2016). As a result, the companies are able to cut down on their operational costs because they do not have to invest in contracting huge buildings and office spaces. On the other hand, allowing their employees to work from home can also enable them to save a lot of finances that are otherwise spent to provide welfare activities and on the job benefits to the employees. This very concept of work from home and other flexible working arrangement concepts are changing the human resource demand and supply patterns, which the Australian business organisations are facing as well. To cope up with the changing market t rends, the companies operating in Australia are also being forced to make a shift to flexible work arrangements, which is altering the job specifications and descriptions, ultimately leading to some major changes in human resource demand and supply patterns (Kramar, 2012). Lastly, another important factor, which has been a direct result of globalisation, is brain drain. Due to globalisation, it has become easier for the human resources to move from one country to another in search of employment (Andrew, 2016). A lot of immigrants are moving from developing countries like India and China to developed countries like USA and Australia. The process of brilliant minds of a country migrating to other parts of the world is thus known as brain drain. Movement of a lot of people into Australia has increased the level of workforce diversity. Such a diverse workforce obviously has different set of skills, problem solving capabilities, technical knowledge, personalities, hard work capabilities, etc. and this diversity can be of a lot of benefits to business organisations. To remain competitive, business organisations operating in Australia have to hire diverse workforce so that they can put their diverse talents to a good use and can give a tough fight to their ma rket competitors. As a result, the changing demographics of the country and the movement of people from and to Australia, is bringing about drastic changes in the countrys external business environment, which is ultimately having an impact on the human resource planning strategies of Australian business organisations. The concept of globalisation has brought drastic changes in the global business world. The business world has become highly competitive and its size has reduced in a great way. It has become easier for business organisations to expand globally and establish contacts with other companies. On the other hand, the number of rivals in different industries has also increased. Further, the human resource management and planning strategies are also being affected as a result of increased globalisation. Due to globalisation, the markets are undergoing major changes within no time and the internal and external environment factors, which they are vulnerable to, are also changing in real time. Such changes can have huge impacts on human resource planning strategies of business organisations, especially for those that are operating in countries like Australia. The changing demographics, technologies, social preferences, etc. can have a huge impact on the human resource demand and supply patters. As a result, it is important for business organisations to start focusing more upon the external market scenario or the global environment factors for designing their human resource planning strategies as they can no longer rely upon internal factors for forecasting the human resource demand that they are most likely going to experience in the coming times. References Australian Bureau of Statistics . (2012, May 10). Australia's unemployment rate decreased 0.2 percentage points to 4.9 per cent in April 2012. Labour Force, Australia. Hudson. (n.d.). 7 Talent Trends That Will Transform The Workplace. Retrieved August 17, 2017, from Hudson.com: https://au.hudson.com/latest-thinking/infographics/hr-infographic The University of Adelaide. (n.d.). Labour Demography . Retrieved August 17, 2017, from The South Australian Centre for Economic Studies: https://www.adelaide.edu.au/saces/economy/labour/ Jury, F. (2016, December 15). The Top 5 HR Trends in Australia for 2017 . Retrieved August 17, 2017, from chapmancg.com: https://chapmancg.com/news/thought-leadership/2016/12/the-top-5-hr-trends-in-australia-for-2016 Kramar, R. (2012, April). Trends in Australian human resource management: what next? . Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50(2). Andrew, R. A. (2016, May 18). 14 Current Trends in Human Resource Management . Retrieved August 17, 2017, from www.linkedin.com: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/15-current-trends-human-resource-management-rutaihwa-aristides-andrew Hendry, C. (2012). Human Resource Management . Routledge. Bhattacharyya, D. K. (2009). Human Resource Planning. Excel Books India. Enotes. (2015, August 18). What are the internal factors and external factors involved in the human resource planning process? . Retrieved August 17, 2017, from www.enotes.com: https://www.enotes.com/homework-help/would-like-know-internal-factors-external-factors-490333 Friedman, E. (2013, July 18). 4 External Factors that Affect Human Resource Management . Retrieved August 17, 2017, from workology.com: https://workology.com/4-external-factors-that-affect-human-resource-management/ Jorgenson, B. (2004). The ageing population: implications for the Australian workforce .